topic posted Thu, January 4, 2007 - 3:02 PM by  Nityananda

- meaning of the name: aradhyati krsnah anaya iti radha - one who devoutly worships is Radha

- sruti references: Radha is mentioned in Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. Sama Veda contains the etymological derivation of the word 'Radha': radha sabdasya vyutpattih samaveda. Nirupita is the word for Radha in Sama Veda. The word Raadhaa is a combination of four root letters: Ra, aa, Dha, aa, each having its own significance.

Ra: rephohi koti janmagham karma bhogam subhasubham (dispels the sins of a million births and liberates one from the consequences of evil deeds)

AA: akara garbha basanca, mrtyunca rogam ucchrudet (emancipates one from the cycle of birth and death and terminates diseases and death)

Dha: dhakara ayusahan ucchrudet (prevents loss of longevity)

AA: akaro bhava bhandhanah ucchrudet (frees one from the earthly bondage)

Chandogya Upanisad (of Sama Veda) 8.13.1 states: 'syamac chavalam prapadye, savalac chyamam prapadye, syamac.' 'By the help of black (syama), we shall be introduced to the service of white (savala); by the help of white (savala), we shall be introduced to the service of black (syama).' Here black indicates Krsna and white indicates the fair complected Radha.

- smriti and tantra references: SB 10.30.28 - anayaradhitah, "by her the Lord is worshiped"; Brahma-vaivarta, Garuda, Bhavisya, Brahmanda, Brahma-vaivarta, Mahabhagavata (ch. 49), Naradiya, Padma (Adi/Svarga khanda, ch. 7, Patala khanda 2.69-99), Varaha, Vayu (ch. 104), Harivamsa, Narada Pancaratra, Gita Govinda...)

'Radha' has not been mentioned in Mahabharata or even Harivamsa Purana but there is a mention of her name in Uttara and Patala Khanda of Padma Purana and in tantric treatise Pancatantra Samhita. 'Radha', however, finds a detailed analysis in Brahmavaivarta Purana, Part II, Sri Krsnajanma Khanda ('the Krsna birth episode'):

krsnasyardhanga sambhuta nathasya sadrsi sati
goloka vasina sreyam atra krsnajna
adhuna ajoni sambhava devi mula prakrti isvari

"The best of Goloka's residents appeared here by Krsna's command. She (Radha) is born of no mother and She (Radha) who is the fundamental Prakrti (the female energy) is a goddess and emerged from the better half of Krsna's being and molded after His image."

sri krsnasya tejasardhena sa ca murtimati sati
eka murtihi dvidha bhuva bhedo vedanirupita

"Radha embodies half the divine effulgence of Sri Krsna. They are both one body divided into two beings - such is the irrefutable decree of the Veda."

iyam stri sa puman kimva sa va kanta puman ayam
dvirupe tejas tulye rupenanca gunena ca
parakramenaca budhya va, jnanen sampadapica
purate gamane naiva kintu sa vayasadhika...

"In Their looks, in Their radiance, in Their attributes, in Their prowess, in Their wisdom, in Their intelligence and in Their riches, They are so identical to each other that it is difficult to tell Radha from Krsna or Krsna from Radha and that She precedes Krsna and is the older of the two."

Ahirbudhnya Samhita explains that in order to create the universe the Supreme God divided himself as sakti and saktiman. Thus the Supreme Being embodied Himself as Purusa (male energy) and Prakrti (female energy).

Skanda Purana corroborates the fact that Radhika is a part of the Supreme Soul:

atmatu radhika tasya taiva ramanat asau

"Radhika is part of thy Supreme Soul (atma) and You dally with her (atma saha ramati iti atmarama). He, therefore, is called Atmarama."

Radha, a part and parcel of the same Supreme Soul, is the 'principle of ecstasy'. She is not anybody else's wife, dallying with Krsna in an extramarital situation. She is His Atma.

Ekanath Das: The Urdhvamnaya-tantra, also known as Urdhvamnaya-maha-tantra, differs from the Urdhvamnaya-samhita. Reference to the Urdhvamnaya-tantra is supposedly made in the Sadhana-dipika, a book by Narayana-bhatta. I could not find these references. The Urdhvamnayana-tantra is said to deal with various mantras unto Srimati Radharani, astaksara-vidhi (esoteric explanations of the Gopala-mantra) and Gopesvari-vidhana (procedure of initiation into Radha-mantra). It is said that parts of the work are scattered here and there. There doesn't seem to be a complete manuscript.

- appearance: Puranas give different versions about Her birth, according to different kalpas.
1. She was born in Gokula as a daughter of Vrsabhanu and Kalavati. (Brahmavaivarta Purana 2.49.35-42, Narada Purana 2.81, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami's Vraja-vilasa-stava)
2. When King Vrsabhanu was preparing the ground to conduct a yajna, he found Her in the earth, as Bhumi-kanya ("earth-girl", similarly to Sitadevi who was found in the wooden box buried in the earth, similar to black Madonnas). (Padma Purana, Brahma Purana 7)
3. She was born from the left side of Krsna. (Brahmavaivarta Purana)
4. At Krsna's birth Visnu asked His attendants to be born on earth. Radha took Her birth in Gokula under the star Jyestha in the morning of Suklastami day in Bhadrapada month. (Mahabharata Adi Parva 11)
In another kalpa she is found in Yamuna river on a golden lotus by Maharaja Vrsabhanu.

- marriage (CC Adi 10.85p. - Jiva G., Brahmanda Purana, Canto 15 - Sri Krsnajanma khanda)

- separated from Krsna for 100 years (during His Dvaraka stay) due to Sridama's curse (Brahma-vaivarta Purana):

6.243 O beautiful one, I will go to Mathura and because of Sridama's curse, We will be separated.

6.252 Beloved, during the hundred years We are separated We will meet in Our dreams again and again.

6.253 In My Narayana form I will go to Dvaraka for those hundred years. In that way I will enjoy My pastimes there.

- as "Haraa": (Narada-pancaratra 5.5.59) "sri-haraa" listed as one of the names of Srimati Radharani. This is actually a verse from the famous Radha-sahasra-nama-stotra (verse 59):

sri-rupa sri-hara sri-da
sri-kama sri-svarupini
sridamananda-datri ca

(The last "a" in "sri-hara" is of course long.)

Radha-Krsna Deities worship - origin:

CC Madhya 9.289 p.: "Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura remarks that up to the advent of His Holiness Sripada Laksmipati Tirtha, it was the system in the disciplic succession of Madhvacarya to worship Lord Krsna alone. After Srila Madhavendra Puri, worship of both Radha and Krsna was established. For this reason Sri Madhavendra Puri is accepted as the root of worship in ecstatic love."

Astaratha Das: Started by Caitanya Mahaprabhu; philosophical basis is Gosvami-grantha, before that Radha was worshiped only in the form of yantra; to prove genuineness of it was the reason of writing Govinda-bhasya (Baladeva Vidyabhusana).

Goloka - references:

Goloka is the supreme spiritual abode, where Sri Krsna lives with Sri Radha and Their innumerable devotees. It is elaborately described in Srimad Bhagavatam 10, Brahma-samhita, Brahma-vaivarta Purana (e.g. Tulasi story), etc. It is also mentioned in scriptures like Narada Pancaratra (tat sarvopari oloke), Gopala-tapani Upanisad, Garga-samhita 6.15.22, Harivamsa (Visnu Parva 19 - gavam eva tu goloko) or Rig Veda samhita 1.154.6 (devanagari, transcription, and translation):

ta vam vastuny usmasi gamadhyai
yatra gavo bhuri-srnga ayasah
atraha tad urugayasya krsnah
paramam padam avabhati bhuri

"We wish to go to Your [Radha's and Krsna's] beautiful houses, about which cows with large, excellent horns are wandering. Yet distinctly shining on this earth is that supreme abode of Yours that showers joy on all, O Urugaya [Krsna, who is much praised]."

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    Re: Radha

    Thu, January 4, 2007 - 4:30 PM
    thank you prabhu for this very important information regarding Srimati Radharani's being referred to throughout the literatures you mentioned.

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